On July 24, 1959, then-Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev got into an issue about women, kitchen and home equipment, and the American manner of existence. It wasn’t planned. But it turned into recorded movies and broadcasts in each country. It was also the first excessive-level meeting between American and Soviet leaders because of the 1955 Geneva Summit. In 1958, the two nations had agreed to a main cultural trade project: the USA would organize a World’s Fair-style exhibition in New York City, and the USA could do the same in Moscow. So Nixon traveled to the USA, giving Khrushchev an excursion to the American National Exhibition in Moscow’s Sokolniki Park. Over 450 American organizations had created pavilions to show off their goods. Science and era presentations have been presented inner a 30,000-square-foot geodesic dome.
The leaders had several conversations over the direction of the excursion. However, the most iconic of those occurred even as they had been status with a crowd in front of a version of the American kitchen. It had all the present-day conveniences you’d assume to discover inside the recent postwar home that would promote for $14,000 (about $120,000 today): elegant cabinets, a dishwasher, a variety, and a refrigerator.
Khrushchev became cantankerous, waving his hand dismissively while maintaining (thru a translator) that the innovations inside the American model kitchen have been gadgets of little consequence. He then asked if there was a device that “puts meals into the mouth and pushes it down.” Their trade didn’t contact the troubles that certainly involved residents of the day—namely, the threat of nuclear warfare—but it touched a nerve wherein gender turned into concern. It happened when Nixon drew Khrushchev’s interest in the dishwasher:
Still fresh from the edge of the release of Sputnik I on October four, 1957, the US had responded by launching the Explorer I on January 31, 1958, and organizing NASA on October 1 of that 12 months. The nascent, tit-for-tat Space Race had Americans feeling fearful. It wasn’t just a competition for clinical “firsts.”
The area race and the development of nuclear weapons had potentially devastating implications for both international locations and the world. So to a point, Nixon and Khrushchev’s debate wasn’t genuinely approximately dishwashers. Nor turned into it about shade tv—a place in which Nixon deftly referred to the USA changed in advance of the united states, as evidenced using the truth that their communication was broadcast in the shade lower back home. It became approximately progress.
And whose development turned into it? Was it, in fact, a “usual mindset” that Americans and Soviets alike wanted to make life simpler for girls? Corporations were racing to supply merchandise and gadgets that might lighten the domestic workload for girls. Technological development opened up at an ever-quickening tempo from the Industrial Revolution thru the postwar boom. However, the idea that house responsibilities must be ladies’ work remained vigorously in postwar America. In the 1950s and early Sixties, groups unveiled glowing, green dream kitchens to excite customers for what was to come. “The future” held robots, automation, style, and simplicity but didn’t promise any modifications in-home gender roles—pretty much the opposite.
The show precipitated Khrushchev’s feminist critique of American society change into supposed to represent the kitchen of a home that could fee $14,000, an less costly sum for an average American worker within the Nineteen Fifties, consistent with Nixon. If Soviet site visitors, to the honest, have been moderately inspired by the middlebrow devices inside the version kitchen, they had been wowed using the aptly named “Miracle Kitchen,” a joint challenge among Whirlpool and RCA first designed in 1956.
The Miracle Kitchen traveled throughout the United States in 1957, then went on show in Moscow in 1959. It was added to Soviet visitors at the American National Exhibition via a younger woman named Anne Anderson, born in Illinois to a Ukrainian dad and mom who spoke fluent Russian. Photographer Robert Lerner took pics of Anderson demonstrating gadgets and posing with appliances inside the Miracle Kitchen for LOOK mag, which ran a function in July 1959. Anderson appeared even though she had been styled to coordinate with the kitchen’s brightly colored Formica panels: she wore a faded blue shirtwaist get dressed, brilliant crimson lipstick, and a pink nail cropping; strands of pearls and two black excessive heels completed the impact. She turned into sporting the midcentury uniform of a woman who keeps the house on her own; however, she also commands a small navy of machines to lighten her workload.
The kitchen had been designed to intimidate Soviet traffic and engender a feeling of being have-nots. At the same time, their authorities maintained a facet inside the early years of the Space Race. But the Miracle Kitchen became a sort of appliance fantasia, greater aspirational than sensible, even for rich Americans of the technology. It featured a compact vacuuming robot, described by Matt Novak on the blog Paleofuture in 2015 as a “proto-Roomba.” The freestanding range should (theoretically) bake a cake in 3 minutes, using the microwave era.
The dishwasher might slide a song over to the dining desk after food for easy loading. Anne Anderson confirmed the kitchen’s push-button “planning middle,” from which she should summon the dishwasher or the mini-vacuum cleaner. If all of this sounds too desirable to be genuine, it normally became: according to Novak’s interview with one of the kitchens’ designers, Joe Maxwell, who had labored with the Detroit-based layout firm Sundberg-Ferrer, a two-way reflection established within the kitchen display allowed a person backstage to move the vacuum cleaner and the dishwasher back and forth through radio manipulate. Perhaps a few Soviet site visitors believed this display represented an ordinary middle-magnificence kitchen in the United States. However, the closest we came durinkitchen the “miracle” turned this period d into Hollywood.